Overcrowded living conditions can also be associated with negative outcomes. In homes where families are crowded, parents may have fewer opportunities to be adequately responsive to infants and toddlers, and more likely to use punitive discipline. Crowding has also been associated with children’s health problems, including respiratory conditions, injuries, and infectious diseases, and with young children’s food insecurity.
The denominator is the total number of children ages 0-2. The numerator is the number of those children who live in homes with more than two household members per bedroom, or, if no bedrooms, more than one person per room. Data reflect 2015-2019.
This indicator can be disaggregated by race/ethnicity, income, and urbanicity. Race/ethnicity: Survey respondents (typically parents) report the infant or toddler’s race and ethnicity. Respondents can select one or more of the following groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, other Asian, Native Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, other Pacific Islander, and/or some other race. Ethnicity is asked as a separate question. Responses of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Other Hispanic are coded as Hispanic, regardless of response to the race item. We then group the remaining non-Hispanic respondents into the following race categories for analyses: non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic Other, and non-Hispanic multiple races. Income: The American Community Survey (ACS) reports family income as a percentage of poverty thresholds. The poverty threshold is based on both total family income, the size of the family, the number of people who are children, and the age of the householder. Infants and toddlers are considered to live in low-income families if this percentage is less than 200. Infants and toddlers are considered to live in non-low-income families if their family’s total income is at least twice the poverty threshold for their family. Urbanicity: Urban residence is defined as living within a metropolitan area. Metropolitan areas include central/principal cities, metro areas outside of central/principal cities, and metro areas with central/principal city status indeterminable. Non-metropolitan areas are areas outside of metropolitan areas. Cases whose metropolitan status is indeterminable or mixed are excluded from the urbanicity subgroup analysis.
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