Percentage of infants/toddlers exiting foster care achieving permanency who are reunified, placed with guardian, placed with non-guardian relative, or adopted

Percentage of infants/toddlers exiting foster care achieving permanency who are reunified, placed with guardian, placed with non-guardian relative, or adopted

Young children fare best when they experience stable and consistent caregiving. One stated goal of the child welfare system is to “ensure that every child and youth has a permanent family or family connection.” Multiple temporary placements, by contrast, can disrupt a young child’s sense of trust and security and contribute to emotional and behavioral problems. This indicator examines the types of permanency that infants and toddlers attain when leaving foster care. The most common permanency outcome is reunification with their own parents. Other types of permanency are placement with a guardian, placement with a relative, and adoption.
Data reflect the 2019 federal fiscal year (FFY).
For the percentage of infants/toddlers exiting foster care who are reunified, the denominator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who achieve permanency. The numerator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who are reunified with the parent.
For the percentage of infants/toddlers exiting foster care who are placed with a guardian, the denominator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who achieve permanency. The numerator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who are placed with a guardian.
For the percentage of infants/toddlers exiting foster care who are placed with a relative, the denominator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who achieve permanency. The numerator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who are placed with a relative.
For the percentage of infants/toddlers exiting foster care who are adopted, the denominator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who achieve permanency. The numerator is children exiting foster care during fiscal year who are ages 0-2 at the time of exit who are adopted.
Use caution when interpreting this group of indicators, as states’ child welfare systems can vary significantly.
These indicators can be disaggregated by race/ethnicity. Classification of infants and toddlers into racial and ethnic groups may vary from state to state, but typically a caseworker enters this information into the database. The included subgroups are non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Hispanic (of any race), non-Hispanic multi-racial, and non-Hispanic White.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children’s Bureau. (2021). What we do. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cb/about/what-we-do
Wulczyn, F., Ernst, M., & Fisher, P. (2011). Who are the infants in out-of-home care? An epidemiological and developmental snapshot. Chapin Hall Issue Brief. https://fcda.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/2011_infants_issue-brief.pdf

Not Ranked
This indicator does not factor into the category's GROW ranking.