This is a new indicator for the State of Babies Yearbook:2022. The denominator is the total number of children ages 0-2. The numerator for this indicator is the number of children ages 0-2 with family incomes less than or equal to 150 percent of their state’s median income as of January 2018 – December 2019. To calculate the numerator, we took the following steps: a) obtained the state median incomes for 4-person families, by state as of October 1, 2018-September 30, 2019, from the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Information Memorandum; b) multiplied those numbers by 1.5 to get 150 percent of the state median income for 4-person families; c) calculated 150 percent of the state median income for families of different configurations, using the conversion provided in a table footnote in the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Information Memorandum; d) applied the relevant state median income threshold to each respondent in the 2019 1-year American Community Survey (ACS), based on their state and family size; and e) counted respondents whose family income was less than or equal to the 150 percent state median income threshold.
This indicator can be disaggregated by race/ethnicity and urbanicity. Race/ethnicity: Survey respondents (typically parents) report the infant or toddler’s race and ethnicity. Respondents can select one or more of the following groups: White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian Indian, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, Other Asian, Native Hawaiian, Guamanian or Chamorro, Samoan, other Pacific Islander, and/or Some other race. Ethnicity is asked as a separate question. Responses of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Other Hispanic are coded as Hispanic, regardless of response to the race item. We then group the remaining non-Hispanic respondents into the following race categories for analyses: Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native, Non-Hispanic Asian, Non-Hispanic Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Non-Hispanic Other, and Non-Hispanic multiple races. Urbanicity: Metropolitan areas include central/principal cities, metro areas outside of central/principal cities, and metro areas with central/principal city status indeterminable. Non-metropolitan areas are areas outside of metropolitan areas. Cases whose metropolitan status is indeterminable or mixed are excluded from the urbanicity subgroup analysis.
Ruggles, S., Flood, S., Foster, S., Goeken, R., Pacas, J., Shouweilter, M., & Sobek, M. (2020). American Community Survey 2019, one-year estimates. (IPUMS USA: Version 11.0) [Data set]. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V10.0
Administration for Children and Families, Office of Community Services. (2020). The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program IM 2018-3 state median income estimates for optional use in FY 2018 and mandatory use in FY 2019. https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ocs/policy-guidance/liheap-im-2018-3-state-median-income-estimates-optional-use-fy-2018-and