This is a new indication for the State of Babies Yearbook: 2023. The denominator is the total number of children ages 0-2. The numerator is the number of children ages 0-2 who live below 50 percent of the federal poverty line. For the State of Babies Yearbook: 2023 we report estimates using the 2021 ACS 1-year data because the Census Bureau did not release its standard 2020 ACS 1-year estimates due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This indicator can be disaggregated by race/ethnicity and urbanicity. Race/Ethnicity: Survey respondents report the infant or toddler’s race and ethnicity. Respondents can select one or more of many racial categories or fill in their race. The Census Bureau then assigns each respondent into one of 9 categories (American Indian and Alaska Native, Black/African American, Chinese, Japanese, Other Asian or Pacific Islander, Other race, Two major races, Three or more major races, and White). Ethnicity is asked as a separate question. Responses of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Other Hispanic are coded as Hispanic, regardless of response to the race item. With these categories and ethnicity, we create the following mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories: Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Asian/PI, Non-Hispanic Black, Non-Hispanic American Indian and Alaska Native, Non-Hispanic Other, Non-Hispanic Multiple Races, and Non-Hispanic White. Urbanicity: Metropolitan areas include central/principal cities, metro areas outside of central/principal cities, and metro areas with central/principal city status indeterminable. Non-metropolitan areas are areas outside of metropolitan areas. Cases whose metropolitan status is indeterminable or mixed are excluded from the urbanicity subgroup analysis. We relied on ACS data from 2021 that do not include estimates for Puerto Rico for the urbanicity indicator. Puerto Rico is not included in the urbanicity subgroup analysis for indicators derived from the Puerto Rico Community Survey.
Ruggles, S., Flood, S., Sobek,M., Brockman, D., Cooper,G., Richards, S. & Schouweiler, M. (2023). American Community Survey 2021, one-year estimates. (IPUMS USA: Version 13.0) [Data set]. https://doi.org/10.18128/D010.V13.0