Percentage of infants/toddlers living in unsafe neighborhoods, as reported by parents

Percentage of infants/toddlers living in unsafe neighborhoods, as reported by parents

Living in neighborhoods that are unsafe can be a source of stress and may pose threats—through violence or pollutants—to physical well-being. Neighborhoods that are unsafe are associated with high rates of infant mortality and low birthweight, child abuse and neglect, and poor motor and social development among young children. Parents in these neighborhoods may restrict children’s opportunities for outdoor play out of concern for safety.
The indicator denominator is children ages 0-2. The numerator is those children whose parents disagree somewhat or definitely that their children are safe in the neighborhood.
Estimates in the State of Babies Yearbook: 2022 are based on a four-year (2016-2019) combined sample of the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH). These results are more reliable than the results presented in the 2021 report, which were based on three years of NSCH data (2016-2018), 2020 report, which were based on two years of NSCH data (2016-2017), or the 2019 report, which were based on 2016 data. They should be considered improved estimates, not new estimates that can be compared directly to the 2021, 2020 or 2019 yearbook estimates.
This indicator can be disaggregated by race/ethnicity and household income. Race/ethnicity: The child’s race/ethnicity is reported by their caregiver, and included subgroups are Hispanic of all races, non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic Asian. The US Census Bureau recommends against using state or national population estimates for the following groups with the NSCH since these categories are not controlled independently: American Indian or Alaska Native, Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and some “other” and “two or more races” categories, so those estimates are not presented. In 2019, the “some other race” race category was removed from the questionnaire. Missing responses were imputed and categorized into existing race groups. Household income: NSCH derives household income-to-poverty ratios based on family income and household size. Missing values were imputed by the Census Bureau, and the single imputation version provided in the 2016-2019 data files is used. Households with incomes less than 200 percent of the federal poverty line are classified as low-income. Households with incomes at or above 200 percent of the federal poverty line are classified as “not low-income.”

To, T., Cadarette, S. M., & Liu, Y. (2001). Biological, social, and environmental correlates of preschool development. Child Care Health & Development, 27(2), 187-200. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2214.2001.00182.x
Beets, M. W. & Foley, J. T. (2008). Association of father involvement and neighborhood quality with kindergarteners’ physical activity: A multilevel structural equation model. American Journal of Health Promotion, 22(3), 195-203. https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.22.3.195

Sources:
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2017). 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2018). 2017 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2019). 2018 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2020). 2019 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org

Not Ranked
This indicator does not factor into the category's GROW ranking.