The denominator is the number of children ages 0-2 who live with their mothers. The numerator is those whose mother is in the labor force (either employed or unemployed but looking for work). People in the armed forces are not in the universe for labor force participation. If there are two mothers in the household, the labor force participation of only the first mother is considered. Mothers are all age 16 or older.
This indicator can be disaggregated by race/ethnicity, income, and urbanicity. Race/ethnicity: Race/ethnicity is reported by the survey respondent who is likely the child’s caregiver. The Current Population Survey (CPS) includes race and ethnicity data for the following single categories as well as specific combinations or two or three categories and unspecified combinations of the races: White only, Black or African American only, American Indian or Alaska Native only, Asian only, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander only. Ethnicity is asked as a separate question. Responses of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Salvadoran, other Hispanic, Central American (excluding Salvadoran) and South American are coded as Hispanic, regardless of response to the race item. We then group the remaining non-Hispanic respondents into the following race categories for analyses: non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and non-Hispanic two or more races. Income: Income is asked only on the March Annual Social and Economic (ASEC) supplement of the CPS. Total family income is divided by the official poverty rate cutoff provided by CPS to calculate the ratio of family income to the federal poverty line. Infants and toddlers are considered to live in low-income families if this ratio is less than 2. Infants and toddlers are considered to live in non-low-income families if their family’s total income is at least twice the federal poverty line. Urbanicity: Metropolitan (urban) areas include central cities, metro areas outside of central cities, and metro areas with central city status unknown. Non-metropolitan (rural) areas are areas outside of metropolitan areas.
Flood, S., King, M., Rodgers, R., Ruggles, S. & Warren, J.R. (2020). Current Population Survey 2020 (IPUMS, Current Population Survey: Version 8.0) [Dataset]. IPUMS. https://doi.org/10.18128/D030.V8.0