Preventive medical care (also known as “well-child care”) is a critical opportunity to detect a developmental delay or disability, so that early treatment can reduce its impact on both the child and family. Well-child visits also allow medical providers to promote behaviors conducive to healthy development, and to share advice with the parents of infants and toddlers. For example, physician guidance increases the likelihood that parents will read to their child, or that a child will be breastfed.
The denominator is children ages 0-2, and the numerator is those children who had one or more preventive medical visits in the past 12 months. Estimates in the State of Babies Yearbook: 2022 are based on the 2016-17 combined National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH). These results are more reliable than the results presented in the State of Babies Yearbook: 2019 report, which were based on the 2016 NSCH. This should be considered an improved estimate, not a new estimate that can be compared directly to the 2016 estimate. The estimates have not been updated to include 2018 or 2019 data due to a change in item language in the 2018 and 2019 NSCH restricting comparability to previous years. This also precludes adding subgroup analyses by race and ethnicity, as was done for the other NSCH indicators, because of the smaller sample size.
This indicator can be disaggregated by household income. NSCH derives household income-to-poverty ratios based on family income and household size. Missing values were imputed by the Census Bureau, and the single imputation version provided in the combined 2016-2017 data file is used. Households with incomes less than 200 percent of the federal poverty line are classified as low-income. Households with incomes at or above 200 percent of the federal poverty line are classified as “not low-income.”
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2002). Developmental surveillance and screening of infants and young children. Pediatrics, 109(1), 144-145. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.109.1.144
Young, K. T., Davis, K., Schoen, C., & Parker, S. (1998). Listening to parents. A national survey of parents with young children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 152(3), 255-262. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.152.3.255
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2019). 2016-17 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata constructed data set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org