Percentage of parents who report reading to their infants/toddlers every day

Percentage of parents who report reading to their infants/toddlers every day

Long before they are able to read, infants and toddlers develop literacy skills and an awareness of language. Since language development is fundamental to many areas of learning, skills developed early in life help set the stage for later school success. By reading aloud to their young children, parents help them acquire the skills they will need to be ready for school. Young children who are regularly read to have a larger vocabulary; higher levels of phonological, letter name, and sound awareness; and better success at decoding words.
The denominator for this indicator is all children ages 0-2. The numerator is the number of children ages 0-2 whose family members report reading to them every day.
Estimates in the State of Babies Yearbook: 2022 are based on a four-year (2016-2019) combined sample of the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH). These results are more reliable than the results presented in the 2021 report, which were based on three years of NSCH data (2016-2018), 2020 report, which were based on two years of NSCH data (2016-2017), or the 2019 report, which were based on 2016 data. They should be considered improved estimates, not new estimates that can be compared directly to the 2021, 2020 or 2019 yearbook estimates.
This indicator can be disaggregated by race/ethnicity and household income. Race/ethnicity: The child’s race/ethnicity is reported by their caregiver, and the included subgroups are Hispanic of all races, non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic Asian. The US Census Bureau recommends against using state or national population estimates for the following groups with the NSCH since these categories are not controlled independently: American Indian or Alaska Native, Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and some “other” and “two or more races” categories, so those estimates are not presented. In 2019, the “some other race” race category was removed from the questionnaire. Missing responses were imputed and categorized into existing race groups. Household income: NSCH derives household income-to-poverty ratios based on family income and household size. Missing values were imputed by the Census Bureau, and the single imputation version provided in the 2016-2019 data files is used. Households with incomes less than 200 percent of the federal poverty line are classified as low-income. Households with incomes at or above 200 percent of the federal poverty line are classified as “not low-income.”

National Research Council. (1999). Starting out right: A guide to promoting children’s reading success. The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/6014
Raikes, H., Pan, B.A., Luze, G.J., Tamis-LeMonda, C.S., Brooks-Gunn, J., Constantine, J., Tarullo, L.B., Raikes, H.A, & Rodriguez, E. (2006). Mother-child bookreading in low-income families: Correlates and outcomes during the first three years of life. Child Development, 77(4), 924-953. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00911.x
Burgess, S. R., Hecht, S. A., & Lonigan, C. J. (2002). Relations of the home literacy environment (HLE) to the development of reading-related abilities: A one-year longitudinal study. Reading Research Quarterly, 37(4), 408-426. https://www.jstor.org/stable/748260

Sources:
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2017). 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2018). 2017 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2019). 2018 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org
Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. (2020). 2019 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Stata Constructed Data Set. Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health supported by Cooperative Agreement U59MC27866 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB). www.childhealthdata.org

Not Ranked
This indicator does not factor into the category's GROW ranking.