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Experiences of Babies in Families with Low-Income in North Dakota

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Families with young children in America are more likely to have low household income or live in poverty than other families.

Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, as many as 40 percent of infants and toddlers lived in families that earned less than 200 percent of the FPL ($51,500 a year for a family of four in 2019) and faced the challenges of not have the financial resources to make ends meet during the critical first 3 years of their children’s lives. And although infants and toddlers represent only 3.5 percent of the nation’s population, they account for 6 percent of those in poverty.

Several of the State of Babies Yearbook indicators can be examined for differences in the experiences of babies and their families according to their household income level. Applying an income lens to the Yearbook’s findings offers a more in-depth view of the many areas in which lack of economic security can create early barriers to the ability of babies in families with low income to thrive (e.g., limited access to quality health care services, stable housing, reliable income and employment, and quality child care).

How does living with low income or in poverty affect the lives of North Dakota’s babies and families?

The selected set of State of Babies indicators below provides a pre-pandemic snapshot of families’ economic status, the specific areas in which they are likely to experience challenges meeting their babies’ physical, social-emotional, and developmental needs; the extent to which they have access to and are reached by existing policies; and offers a view of where your state’s policies currently address or can be expanded to further assist families in supporting their babies’ well-being. To deepen your understanding of how families’ experiences vary, select the + icon where it appears with an indicator to view the data by income.

Demographics

Nationally, nearly 1 in 5 (18.6 percent) of the nation’s 11.5 million babies were living in poverty. Nearly 1 in 5 (18.6 percent) are in families that live below the poverty level that face even greater challenges meeting their basic needs. These 2021 Yearbook findings reflect what had been a slight downward trend from previous years, but still represent a very concerning proportion of young children in families that experience economic insecurity.


Poverty status of infants and toddlers
Above Low-Income
Low-Income
In Poverty
Infants and toddlers in poverty, by race
Non-Hispanic Black
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic Other
Non-Hispanic White
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Multiple Races
Workforce Participation
Mothers in the Labor Force
No Working Parent

Good Health

Supporting babies’ and mothers’ physical and mental health provides the foundation for infants’ lifelong physical, cognitive, emotional, and social well-being. Babies’ brains grow rapidly in the first years of life, and, in these early years, the brain works with other organs and organ systems to set the stage for subsequent development and health outcomes. The following indicators, related to coverage and access to health care, food insecurity and nutrition support, and babies and mothers’ health, highlight areas of need and, income-related differences, where possible.


Click Plus symbol to see selected indicators by subgroup.
North Dakota
National Avg
Health Care Access/Affordability

Uninsured low-income infants/toddlers
Medical home
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 63.7%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Food & Nutrition

Ever breastfed
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 88.9%
Low Income
Above Low Income
Infants breastfed at 6 months
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 67.0%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Low or very low food security
14.9%
13.7%
WIC coverage
68.7%
79.3%
Child Health

Preventative medical care received
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 95.1%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Preventative dental care received
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 27.1%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Received recommended vaccines
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 87.5%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Social-emotional Health

Mothers reporting less than optimal mental health
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 36.0%
Low Income*
Above Low Income*
Which of the following supportive policies does North Dakota have in place to improve the health of babies in families with low income?

Eligibility limit (% FPL) for pregnant women in Medicaid
162
200
Medicaid expansion state
Yes
Postpartum extension of Medicaid coverage
No law beyond mandatory 60 days
State Medicaid policy for maternal depression screening in well-child visits
Recommended
Medicaid plan covers social-emotional screening for young children
Yes
Medicaid plan covers IECMH services at home
Yes
Medicaid plan covers IECMH services at pediatric/family medicine practices
Yes
Medicaid plan covers IECMH services in early childhood education settings
Yes
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Applicable

Strong Families

Young children develop in the context of their families, where stability, safety, and supportive relationships nurture their growth. The indicators in this domain examine this family context, including well-being, economic resources, and physical environment, as well as the experience of infants and toddlers in the child welfare system. The following indicators, related to access to basic needs, family resilience, and young children's exposure to adverse early life experiences, highlight areas of need, and income-related differences, where possible.


Click Plus symbol to see selected indicators by subgroup.
North Dakota
National Avg
Families Ability to Meet Basic Need

TANF benefits receipt among families in poverty
Housing instability
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 8.9%
Low Income*
Above Low Income*
Crowded housing
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 15.8%
Low Income
Above Low Income
Resilience & Risks to Well-being

Family resilience
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 88.0%
Low Income
Above Low Income*
Unsafe neighborhoods
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 5.7%
Low Income
Above Low Income
1 adverse childhood experience
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 25.1%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
2+ adverse childhood experiences
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 18.2%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Infant/toddler maltreatment rate
Which of the following supportive policies does North Dakota have in place to improve the economic security and well-being of babies in families with low income?

TANF Work Exemption
No
Paid family leave
No
Paid sick time that covers care for child
No
State Child Tax Credit
No
State Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
No
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Applicable

Positive Early Learning Experiences

Infants and toddlers learn through interactions with the significant adults in their lives and active exploration of enriching environments. The quality of infants' and toddlers’ early learning experiences at home and in other care settings can impact their cognitive and social-emotional development, as well as early literacy. The following indicators, related to cost and access to child care, home learning opportunities, and access to early prevention services, highlight areas of need and income-related differences, where possible.


Click Plus symbol to see selected indicators by subgroup.
North Dakota
National Avg
Early Care and Education Opportunities

Parent reads to baby every day
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 40.0%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Parent sings to baby every day
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 60.9%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Cost of care, as % of income single parents
33.8%
N/A
Cost of care, as % of income married families
9.3%
N/A
Low/moderate income infants/toddlers in CCDF funded-care
3.7%
4.2%
Early Intervention and Prevention Services

Developmental screening received
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 35.1%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Which of the following supportive policies does North Dakota have in place to improve early learning experiences of babies in families with low income?

State reimburses center based child care at/above 75th percentile of market rates
Yes
Infant eligibility level for child care subsidy above 200% of FPL
Yes
Allocated CCDBG funds
No
Group size requirements meet or exceed EHS standards
0 of 3 age groups
Adult/child ratio requirements meet or exceed EHS standards
1 of 3 age groups
Level of teacher qualification required by the state
No credential beyond a high school diploma
Infant/toddler credential adopted
No
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Applicable

Material Hardship
in North Dakota

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Race, Ethnicity, and the Health of Babies

View the Report