Where children are born can affect their chances for a strong start in life. Babies need good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences to foster their healthy brain development and help them realize their full potential.

This state profile provides a snapshot of how infants, toddlers, and their families are faring in each of these three policy domains. Within each domain, view data for selected child, family, and policy indicators compared to national averages. The profile begins with a demographic description of the state’s babies and families to offer the broadest context for exploring what may be very different experiences of the state’s youngest children.

Explore Texas’s Sub-Reports

Demographics

Texas
National Average
Infants and toddlers in Texas

Texas is home to 1,160,963 babies, representing 4.0 percent of the state’s population. As many as 45.6 percent live in households with incomes less than twice the federal poverty line (in 2019, about $51,500 a year for a family of four), placing them at economic disadvantage. The state’s youngest children are diverse and are raised in a variety of family contexts and household structures.

Race/ethnicity of infants and toddlers
Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic Black
Hispanic
Other
Non-Hispanic Asian
American Indian/Alaska Native
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
Multiple Races
Poverty status of infants and toddlers
Above Low-Income
Low-Income
In Poverty
Infants and toddlers in poverty, by race
Non-Hispanic Black
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic Other
Non-Hispanic White
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Multiple Races
Family structure
2-Parent Family
1-Parent Family
No Parents Present
Grandparent-headed households
Working Moms
Mothers in the Labor Force
No Working Parents
Rural/Non-metro area
Living Outside of a Metro Area

Good Health

In Texas
How are Texas’s babies faring in Good Health?

Supporting babies’ and mothers’ physical and mental health provides the foundation for infants’ lifelong physical, cognitive, emotional, and social well-being. Babies’ brains grow rapidly in the first years of life, and, in these early years, the brain works with other organs and organ systems to set the stage for subsequent development and health outcomes. Equitable access to good nutrition during the prenatal period and first years of life is key to ensure that babies receive the nourishment and care they need for a strong start in life. Strengthening equitable access to integrated, affordable maternal, pediatric, and family health care is also essential to meeting babies’ and families’ health and developmental needs.

Texas falls in the Reaching Forward (R) tier for the Good Health domain. A state’s ranking is based on indicators of maternal and child health, including health care coverage, prenatal care, birth outcomes, and receipt of recommended preventive care as well as food security, nutrition, and mental health. Texas performs better than national averages on key indicators, such as the percentages of babies receiving preventive dental care and mothers reporting less than favorable mental health. The state is performing worse than national averages on indicators such as the percentages of uninsured babies in families with low income and women receiving late or no prenatal care.

Key Indicators of Good Health
Click Plus symbol to see selected indicators by subgroup.
Texas
National Avg
Uninsured low-income infants/toddlers
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 18.4%
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black
Hispanic
Other*
White
Urbanicity
Min: 0%
Max: 8.0%
Urban
Rural
Ever breastfed
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 87.7%
Black
Hispanic
Other
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 90.2%
Low Income
Above Low Income
Infants breastfed at 6 months
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 59.0%
Black
Hispanic
Other
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 63.9%
Low Income
Above Low Income
High weight-for-length
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 15.9%
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black
Hispanic
White
Late or no prenatal care received
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 15.1%
Black
Hispanic
White
Urbanicity
Min: 0%
Max: 9.6%
Urban
Rural
Mothers reporting less than optimal mental health
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 21.3%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White*
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 22.6%
Low Income*
Above Low Income*
Infant mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 live births)
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0
Max: 10.2
American Indian/Alaska Native
Black
Hispanic
White
Babies with low birthweight
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 13.9%
Black
Hispanic
White
Urbanicity
Min: 0%
Max: 8.5%
Urban
Rural
Preterm births
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 14.6%
Black
Hispanic
White
Urbanicity
Min: 0%
Max: 10.8%
Urban
Rural
Preventative medical care received
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 95.0%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Preventative dental care received
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 69.0%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White*
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 67.6%
Low Income*
Above Low Income*
Received recommended vaccines
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 79.5%
Black*
Hispanic
Other*
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 78.3%
Low Income
Above Low Income
Medical home
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 53.3%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White*
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 50.9%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Good Health Policy in Texas
Medicaid expansion state
No
State Medicaid policy for maternal depression screening in well-child visits
Recommended
Medicaid plan covers social-emotional screening for young children
Yes
Medicaid plan covers IECMH services at home
Yes
Medicaid plan covers IECMH services at pediatric/family medicine practices
Yes
Medicaid plan covers IECMH services in early childhood education settings
No
Pregnant workers protection
State employees only
Postpartum extension of Medicaid coverage
Law covering either some women but not all, or all women but for less than 1 year
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Applicable
All Good Health Indicators for Texas
State Indicator
National Avg
Eligibility limit (% FPL) for pregnant women in Medicaid
203
200
Uninsured low-income infants/toddlers
7.8%
5.1%
Low or very low food security
13.6%
13.7%
Infants ever breastfed
84.8%
83.6%
Infants breastfed at 6 months
54.6%
55.1%
WIC coverage
79.8%
79.3%
High weight-for-length
14.9%
N/A
Late or no prenatal care received
9.6%
6.2%
Mothers reporting less than optimal mental health
17.6%
20.3%
Infant mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 live births)
5.5
5.7
Babies with low birthweight
8.5%
8.3%
Preterm births
10.8%
10.0%
Preventive medical care received
89.6%
91.1%
Preventive dental care received
51.2%
33.0%
Received recommended vaccines
72.3%
72.8%
Medical home
47.9%
51.0%
Maternal mortality
N/A
17.4
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Available.

Strong Families

In Texas
How are Texas’s babies faring in Strong Families?

Young children develop in the context of their families, where stability, safety, and supportive relationships nurture their growth. All families may benefit from parenting supports, but children and families of color face numerous challenges as a result of racism that impact their everyday life, which are exacerbated even more for children and families living in households with low income. Many policies can be designed to address these disparities by race, ethnicity, and income, including the provision of safe and stable housing, home visiting services, family-friendly employer policies, economic support for families with low income, and tax credits that benefit families with young children.

Texas falls in the Getting Started (G) tier of states when it comes to indicators of Strong Families. The state’s ranking in this domain reflects indicators on which it is performing better than the national average, such as the percentages of babies experiencing housing insecurity (moved 3 or more times) and parents who report living in unsafe neighborhoods. Texas is doing worse than the national average on indicators such as the percentages of families who report being resilient and babies living in crowded housing.

Key Indicators of Strong Families
Click Plus symbol to see selected indicators by subgroup.
Texas
National Avg
TANF benefits receipt among families in poverty
Housing instability
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 1.1%
Asian
Black
Hispanic
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 1.8%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Crowded housing
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 27.1%
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black
Hispanic
Other*
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 30.6%
Low Income
Above Low Income
Urbanicity
Min: 0%
Max: 19.7%
Urban
Rural
Unsafe neighborhoods
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 7.0%
Asian
Black
Hispanic
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 4.3%
Low Income
Above Low Income
Family resilience
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 86.6%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 85.3%
Low Income
Above Low Income*
1 adverse childhood experience
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 26.1%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White*
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 29.3%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
2+ adverse childhood experiences
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 6.7%
Asian
Black
Hispanic
White
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 10.4%
Low Income
Above Low Income
Infant/toddler maltreatment rate
Time in out-of-home placement
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 9.3%
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black
Hispanic
White
Multiple Races
Removed from home (per 1,000 infants/toddlers)
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0
Max: 11.7
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian
Black
Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
Hispanic
Multiple Races
White
Strong Families Policy in Texas
Paid family leave
No
Paid sick time that covers care for child
No
TANF Work Exemption
Yes
State Child Tax Credit
No
State Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC)
No
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Applicable
All Strong Families Indicators for Texas
State Indicator
National Avg
TANF benefits receipt among families in poverty
5.9%
21.7%
Housing instability
1.1%
2.6%
Crowded housing
19.4%
15.5%
Unsafe neighborhoods
3.6%
4.9%
Family resilience
80.2%
85.3%
One adverse childhood experience
20.9%
20.7%
Two or more adverse childhood experiences
6.7%
7.7%
Infant/toddler maltreatment rate
18.3
16.4
Out of home placements
9.0%
18.7%
Permanency Achieved: Reunified
35.1%
48.1%
Potential home visiting beneficiaries served
0.7%
2.0%
Permanency Achieved: Relative
N/A
7.8%
Infants/toddlers exiting foster care to permanency
99.3%
98.8%
Permanency Achieved: Guardian
24.1%
8.3%
Removed from home
6.1
7.1
Permanency Achieved: Adoption
40.1%
34.6%
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Available.

Use our interactive table to get a snapshot view of all states’ results on any Yearbook indicator in our three domains.

Compare Indicators Across States

Positive Early Learning Experiences

In Texas
How are Texas’s babies faring in Positive Early Learning Experiences?

Infants and toddlers learn through interactions with the significant adults in their lives and active exploration of enriching environments. The quality of infant and toddlers’ early learning experiences at home and in other care settings can impact their cognitive and social-emotional development, as well as early literacy. High-quality early childhood care can strengthen parents’ interactions with their children in the home learning environment and support parents’ ability to go to work or attend school. Equitable access to high-quality care across factors like race, ethnicity, and income ensures all infants and toddlers have the opportunity for optimal development; however, disparities in access to high-quality care remain across many states and communities in the United States.

Texas scores in the Getting Started (G) tier for Positive Early Learning Experiences. The state’s ranking in this domain reflects indicators on which it is performing better than the national average, such as the higher percentage of infants and toddlers who received a developmental screening. Texas is doing worse than the national average on indicators such as the lower percentage of parents who report singing songs or telling stories to their infants and toddlers every day. Infant care costs as a percentage of the state’s median income for single and married parents also contribute to the ranking.

Key Indicators of Positive Early Learning Experiences
Click Plus symbol to see selected indicators by subgroup.
Texas
National Avg
Parent reads to baby every day
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 43.0%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White*
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 35.6%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Parent sings to baby every day
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 61.6%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White*
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 58.8%
Low Income*
Above Low Income
Percentage of income-eligible infants/toddlers with Early Head Start access
Cost of care, as % of income single parents
Cost of care, as % of income married families
Low/moderate income infants/toddlers in CCDF funded-care
Developmental screening received
Race/Ethnicity
Min: 0%
Max: 42.9%
Asian
Black
Hispanic*
White*
Income
Min: 0%
Max: 38.6%
Low Income*
Above Low Income*
Percentage of infants/toddlers receiving IDEA Part C services
Positive Early Learning Experiences Policy in Texas
Infant eligibility level for child care subsidy above 200% of FPL
Depends on location
Allocated CCDBG funds
Yes
Group size requirements meet or exceed EHS standards
0 of 3 age groups
Adult/child ratio requirements meet or exceed EHS standards
1 of 3 age groups
Level of teacher qualification required by the state
No credential beyond a high school diploma
Infant/toddler credential adopted
Yes
State reimburses center based child care at/above 75th percentile of market rates
No
State includes "at-risk" children as eligible for IDEA Part C services or reports that they serve “at-risk” children
No
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Applicable
All Positive Early Learning Experiences Indicators for Texas
State Indicator
National Avg
Parent reads to baby every day
28.9%
37.2%
Parent sings to baby every day
47.6%
57.4%
Percentage of income-eligible infants/toddlers with Early Head Start access
6.0%
11.0%
Cost of care, as % of income married families
11.6%
N/A
Cost of care, as % of income single parents
38.1%
N/A
Low/moderate income infants/toddlers in CCDF funded-care
3.8%
4.2%
Developmental screening received
36.8%
32.5%
Infants/toddlers with developmental delay
1.0%
1.1%
Percentage of infants/toddlers receiving IDEA Part C services
4.9%
6.8%
Timeliness of Part C services
98.7%
N/A
†This indicator is not factored into the GROW tier rankings.
Note: N/A indicates Not Available.
Download and Print Texas's 2019 Data Download and Print Texas's 2020 Data